Nursing: Quantitative studies

Summary of Studies

According to Ibrahim et al. (2015), Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is an ailment that describes various disorders affecting the kidney structure and its performance. The Chronic Kidney Disease in its worst level can progress into end-stage renal illness. Thus, the Chronic Kidney Disease is a crucial health issue that is growing rapidly in developed and developing countries globally. According to Hettianrachchi and Abeysena (2018), Chronic Kidney Disease is a major health issue worldwide because of the high growing patients’ number and the heavy cost incurred in the treatment of the disease. It is estimated that ten percent of the world population is suffering from Chronic Kidney Disease, which is similar to the diabetes burden on patients (The Lancet, 2020). Chronic Kidney Disease not only impact negatively on patient physical health, but it also compromises the patient psychological health, social functioning, daily functioning, and general patient wellbeing. The disease treatment modalities like hemodialysis, dietary, oral medication, fluid restrictions, and renal transplantation affects the wellbeing of patients. Therefore, it is essential to check the psychological status of Chronic Kidney Disease periodically. The primary objective of conducting this research is to determine the effectiveness of a psychosocial integrated support program in aiding enhancing the patients diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease.

PICOT Question

In Chronic Kidney Disease patients, what is the effectiveness of the integrated psychosocial support program on patients’ results within a period of three months?

The Articles Support Nurse Practice Issues

The Hettiarachchi and Abeysena article, “Association of poor social support and financial insecurity with the psychological distress of Chronic Kidney Disease patients” and Ibrahim et al. article, “The role of personality and social support in health-related quality of life in Chronic Kidney Disease patients” are both critical to this research study. The two articles will be used in identifying various patients affected by end-stage renal disease. After identifying patients, the PICOT question will benefit considerably from the articles’ findings on the psychological effects of Chronic Kidney Disease, which is vital in helping to determine the effectiveness of the integrated psychological support intervention to the patients. The data obtained from the articles’ research findings will shed light on the intensity of psychological impacts on Chronic Kidney Disease patients. The articles have focused primarily on the intervention of the psychological impacts of Chronic Kidney Disease patients, which is a similar group of study that is identified in the PICOT question.

Method of Study

The Hettiarachchi and Abeysena article and Ibrahim article both have emulated the cross-sectional study method in carrying out their research. The cross-sectional study method majorly involves administering a structured questionnaire to obtain a response from the study group identified. Articles used structured questionnaires, and there exists a small difference in the way the questionnaires were administered and the focus areas. The article, Association of poor social support and financial insecurity with the psychological distress of Chronic Kidney Disease patients had two sections of questionnaires. One section focused on the participant sociodemographic, economic, and related disease variables, while the second section focused on measuring the social support and assessing psychological distress of intervention. The article The role of personality and social support in health-related quality of life in Chronic Kidney Disease patients used structured questionnaires that assessed various aspects like the functioning and wellbeing of the patients.

The cross-sectional study method is beneficial in obtaining quality and quantity results in research. The use of questionnaires that are well structured and objective to the study enables researchers to collect enough information needed from the patients. However, the cross-sectional study method may have limitations as sometimes the questionnaires can be too long, thus tiresome for the participant to continue answering them. Also, some questionnaires may seem complex, unclear, and difficult for the participant.

Results of the Study

The findings of the article “The role of personality and social support in health-related quality of life in Chronic Kidney Disease patients”. The study focused on exploring contributions of big five personality traits and social support to Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). From the findings, it is revealed that the growing of Chronic Kidney Disease and age are interconnected with Health-related quality of life, whereby the older age and later stages of Chronic Kidney Disease were associated with poorer health-related quality of life. It is reported that various studies showed the connection between the progression of Chronic Kidney Disease and Health-related quality of life (Pagels et al., 2012). Correspondingly, the article results found that Health-related quality of life is affected with reduced functioning of kidneys because of Chronic Kidney Disease. According to the article, if the patients do not go for appropriate treatment, Chronic Kidney Disease could grow into advanced stages of the disease. The article findings insist on the need to have a psychological assessment, particularly in terms of patient’s personality traits, which can influence Health-related quality of life to some extent. Also, the findings suggest that patients perceived particular social support to be essential, like affectionate, social support. Thus, taking into consideration the findings in intervention can enhance the patient’s health results and quality of life (Ibrahim et al., 2015).

The results findings of article Association of poor social support and financial insecurity with psychological distress of Chronic Kidney Disease patients. According to the article findings, the female Chronic Kidney Disease patients are more psychologically distressed as compared to male Chronic Kidney Disease patients. The article findings also reveal that Chronic Kidney Disease patients with low monthly income are more likely to be distressed compared to Chronic Kidney Disease patients earning adequate monthly income. The article findings show that Chronic Kidney Disease patients in stages four and five have more psychological distress than Chronic Kidney Disease patients in stages one and three. Therefore, attention should be focused on factors associated with psychological distress. Measures should be put in place, particularly on modifiable factors like improving the quality and quantity of social support (Hettiarachchi and Abeysena, 2018).

Outcomes Comparison

The anticipated outcomes of the PICOT question expect the following issues to be resolved by the end of the research study. First and foremost, different kinds of psychological distress affecting Chronic Kidney Disease patients should be identified. It encompass identifying patients who are affected psychologically, basing on age and stages the patients are in. PICOT question also expects the outcome to have solutions on how psychological distress can be handled effectively with the integrated psychosocial support program. Comparing Ibrahim et al. article and Hettiarachchi article to the anticipated results of the PICOT question, the two articles have close results to the one expected. From the articles’ outcomes, different psychological distress has been identified on various Chronic Kidney Disease patients, mainly basing on the age and the disease stage of the patient. Also, the two articles have identified measures and mechanisms that can be employed in helping the psychologically distressed patients to improve social life and ensure the quality of life. Therefore, the study will benefit maximumly from the two articles as they present all issues that the study intends to solve in the research.

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