Literature Evaluation Table

Summary of Clinical Issue

According to Ibrahim et al. (2015), chronic kidney ailment is referred to as a condition that involves a decrease in the level of the kidneys’ capability to sift waste and fluids from the blood. The condition is mainly attributed to other medical conditions that exert pressure on kidneys over a certain period. They include diabetes, high blood pressure, and also long-term kidney infections. Since the condition takes longer to develop, it is prevalent in older individuals.  According to Cukor et al. (2014), in communities, psychiatric disorders are largely associated with kidney ailment diagnosis are a usual occurrence.  A state of depression is likely to result in detrimental consequences such as deaths and being frequently hospitalized. However, the need to incorporate various forms of palliative care, such as psychosocial support for the patients, is faced with numerous restrictions. It is, therefore, crucial to conduct a research on the need for the integration of psychosocial support in managing the condition may greatly assist in advancing the medical results. It is through research mechanisms that health personnel will possess the ability to comprehend the patients’ needs when offering psychosocial support. The main objective for conducting a research is to identify whether integrating psychosocial aide would assist in improving the results of those individuals diagnosed with End-stage renal ailment.

PICOT Question:

(P) Elderly patients diagnosed with kidney disease (I) if the integration of psychosocial support (C) as compared to regular practices will assist in improving conditions such as death and despair (O) in a duration of 6 months (T)?

 

Criteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3
APA-Formatted Article Citation with Permalink Hettiarachchi, R., & Abeysena, C. (2018). Association of Poor Social Support and Financial Insecurity with Psychological Distress of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Attending the National Nephrology Unit in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Nephrology2018.https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5678781

 

Ibrahim, N., Teo, S. S., Din, N. C., Gafor, A. H. A., & Ismail, R. (2015). The role of personality and social support in health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients. PloS One10(7),e0129015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488553/ Cukor, D., Ver Halen, N., Asher, D. R., Coplan, J. D., Weedon, J., Wyka,            K. E.,   … & Kimmel, P. L. (2014). Psychosocial intervention improves depression,      quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology25(1), 196-206. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC38
How Does the Article Relate to the PICOT Question? The study’s objective is to establish the link between social support and mental distress amongst patients. The research seeks to establish the importance of character traits and support on the quality of heath amongst the patients. The research established how social support assists in reducing cases of depression and improving the quality of life.
Quantitative, Qualitative (How do you know?) Quantitative as it involves a cross-sectional and deductive approach. Quantitative as the research involves the use of a cross-sectional approach and deductive system to illustrate the results. Quantitative as an uncontrolled pilot mechanism is utilized and involved randomization.
Purpose Statement The research is aimed at establishing the factors that contribute to stress amongst the population. The study’s main goal is to establish the importance of personality traits and traits on the quality of health. The sole aim of the research is to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the state of melancholy for patients that undergo dialysis.
Research Question   No research questions were indicated in the study. The question may be derived from the purpose of the study: What are the impacts of social support among patients with chronic kidney ailment? What are the impacts of cognitive therapy on the state of depression and adherence to medical procedures?
Outcome 55% of the patients displayed signs of mental stress (Hettiarachchi & Abeysena, 2018). Female Patients aged 65 years and above displayed high signs of depression. The outcome indicated high levels of extraversion and low perceived caring support were related to high physical HRQoL (Ibrahim et al., 2015). High levels of neuroticism were linked to poor mental HRQoL. An assessment of the baseline depression rates for each respondent illustrates a decrease after six months of intervention. The patients depicted a decrease in the state of depression compared to other methods of care. Additionally, 89% of the patients in the intervention classification showed a decrease in melancholy signs compared to 38% in the waitlist classification (Cukor et al., 2014).
Setting

(Where did the study take place?)

National Institute of Nephrology Unit, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Nephrology Clinic in Malaysia.

 

Two dialysis centers in New York.
Sample The samples were collected using systematic sampling and comprised of 420 individuals. The ultimate research outcome entails the involvement of 382 patients. Samples included 108 males and 92 females. The number of recruited respondents was 69, and only 59 completed the research. 33 respondents comprised of the treatment list group, while 26 comprised of the waitlist group.
Method The quantitative approach utilized the cross-sectional approach with the mode of selection, including both the inclusion and exclusion measures. The modes used in the study comprised of the GHQ-12, SSQ-6, and BRIEFSCOPE. The analysis of data entailed tools such as SPSS. Purposive sampling was used to enroll the respondents. Respondents entailed 200 patients suffering from various phases of chronic disease. Each respondent finished a Short-Form 36, Big Five Inventory, and the Medicinal Results Study. Questionnaires on Social support were also administered while analytics of data was done using the SPSS method. An uncontrolled pilot approach was used in the study. The process of recruiting entailed the principles of inclusion and exclusion. It comprised two groups that include the waitlist group and the treatment first group. Additionally, the assessment was conducted after 6 months of randomization.
Key Findings of the Study The researchers found out mental anguish amongst patients was considerably linked to various factors such as demographic and economic, patients educated up to ordinary level, and state of unemployment. The research indicated that various traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, were linked to HRQoL. Additionally, caring social support is linked to a high quality of life. As compared to the waitlist category, the treatment-first category attained considerably more declines in Beck Depression Inventory-II and Hamilton Depression Rating rates following interventions.
Recommendations of the Researcher No recommendations by the researchers. Further research ought to be conducted on the same matter. Close attention for patients suffering from chronic kidney disease should be enhanced in planning interventions to enhance health outcomes. Identifying the minimum qualification requirements and enhancement of time commitment in the future.

 

Criteria Article 4 Article 5
APA-Formatted Article Citation with Permalink Silva Junior, G. B., Daher, E. F., Buosi, A. P. A., Lima, R. S., Lima, M. M.,         Silva, E. C., … & Araujo, S. M. (2014). Depression among patients with end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis. Psychology, Health & Medicine19(5), 547-551.             http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2013.845303

 

 

Taylor, F., Combes, G., & Hare, J. (2016). Improving clinical skills to support the emotional and psychological well-being of patients with end-stage renal disease: a qualitative evaluation of two interventions. Clinical Kidney Journal, 9(3), 516-524. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4886913/pdf/sfw017.pdf

 

How Does the Article Relate to the PICOT Question? The PICOT statement relates to the state of depression of patients undergoing dialysis for end-stage renal disease. The research aims at illustrating the advancements of social support in patients suffering from kidney failure after the implementation of two diverse courses of therapy.
Quantitative, Qualitative (How do you know?) It is qualitative as it involves the incorporation of an observational cross-sectional approach. Additionally, gathering data involved the use of questionnaires, and the researchers also utilizes inductive logic. The research is qualitative as it provides an in-depth comprehension of the context where every intervention was employed. Additionally, there is the use of inductive logic by the researchers.
Purpose Statement The study intends to evaluate the rates of melancholy amongst patients ailing from a chronic kidney ailment that partake dialysis. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effects of two modes of interventions with the aim of addressing the patients’ emotions identified with end-stage renal disease.
Research Question What is the likelihood that patients with the end renal stage disease suffering from depression? Are they associated with poor quality care? In what way will the interventions assist in containing the emotional health of patients suffering from kidney ailment?

 

Outcome 101 participants were believed to have experienced a state of depression, which represents 68% of the participants. 49% were categorized as mild, while cases perceived to be moderate were almost 41%. 15% of the cases were believed to be grave. In addition, participants that had a psychologist’s follow-up were approximately 32% (Silva et al., 2014). A majority of patients relied on medication such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines to alleviate the adversative signs. Both intervening measures were effective and ought to be utilized in health care facilities. The participants also noted that both methodologies assisted in advancing discussions based on emotional problems (Taylor et al., 2016).  A majority of the patients were contented with responses provided by the consultants, whereas other patients were discouraged from more unequivocal discussions due to focusing on physical aspects.
Setting

(Where did the study take place?)

Two hemodialysis facilities located in Fortaleza, Brazil.

 

Two NHS Hospital Trusts

 

 

Sample 148 respondents were involved in the research study. The mode of sampling involved was purposive as it offers a greater diversity of age and gender and mode of dialysis treatment.
Method The research incorporated the use of a BDI-II questionnaire, which has been tried and authenticated in numerous studies. The tool used in the rating the level of depression comprised of three classifications that comprise of mild, moderate, and grave. One mode of intervention involved the use of patient issues slip to establish issues that they desire to discuss during the consultations. The second method entailed direct querying of the patients by the consultants regarding the emotions. Interviews were recorded word for word and analyzed utilizing the persistent comparative technique.
Key Findings of the Study The study’s findings denoted that approximately 68% had depression cases, with 15% suffering from severe cases. Even though professionals and patients inclined to use both interventions in diverse ways, they largely articulated affirmative opinions regarding how supportive the interventions were in stimulating discussions on emotion subjects.
Recommendations of the Researcher An all-inclusive method thus needs to be sought in administering dialysis. It includes both therapists and nephrologists to be part of a multi-disciplinary crew to efficiently progress the patients’ quality of life and tackle the underlying medical glitches. Provision of cognitive and developmental tools to enable the conversation of issues regarding emotions during regular consultations by outpatients.

 

Criteria Article 6
APA-Formatted Article Citation with Permalink Lai, S., Mecarelli, O., Pulitano, P., Romanello, R., Davi, L., Zarabla, A.,… & Mitterhofer, A. P. (2016). Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative and replacement therapy. Medicine95(48). http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005191

 

How Does the Article Relate to the PICOT Question? The PICOT question is linked to the article as it denotes the malfunctions of various aspects such as neurological, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects attributed to chronic kidney ailments. Two therapeutic methods are also incorporated in the research, and the outcomes are assessed based on the population.
Quantitative, Qualitative (How do you know?) The research is Qualitative as it involves an observational method.
Purpose Statement The research objective was to assess the nervous, mental, and rational inequality in chronic kidney disease patients on conventional and auxiliary rehabilitation.
Research Question What kind of imbalances are present in patients suffering from chronic kidney ailments subjected to either auxiliary or conventional rehabilitation?
Outcome A Qualitative Study of EEG indicated differences in patients on conventional remedy and KT patients. The MMPI-2 hysteria and paranoia scales are ominously connected with creatinine, eGFR, and CRP (Lai et al., 2016). Significantly, cynical and hysterical disposition was interconnected to high power theta band and relative delta power. Furthermore, a significant variation amongst the means of nephropathic patients was exhibited by each NPZ5 score.
Setting

(Where did the study take place?)

Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Sample The study involved 99 patients.
Method Selected patients were carefully assessed while those suffering from other conditions were left out of the study as a relevant institution was licensed to conduct the procedures. Patients’ consent was appropriately acquired, whereas those with inappropriate data were omitted.
Key Findings of the Study The research findings indicate that it is important to maintain constant observation of patients showing signs of neuropsychological impediments. Additionally, early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are indispensable to alleviate neuropsychological/cognitive disorders and may assist in improving the patients’ quality of life.
Recommendations of the Researcher Incorporation of similar and non-invasive mechanisms, for instance, EEG and cognitive-psychological tests, for prompt identification of risks leading to the development of neurological and cognitive ailments. Moreover, involving a larger populace to affirm the outcomes and also integrating multi-disciplinary interpolations.

 

 

 

References

Cukor, D., Ver Halen, N., Asher, D. R., Coplan, J. D., Weedon, J., Wyka,             K. E.,   … & Kimmel, P. L. (2014). Psychosocial intervention improves depression, quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology25(1), 196-206. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC38

Hettiarachchi, R., & Abeysena, C. (2018). Association of Poor Social Support and Financial Insecurity with Psychological Distress of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Attending National Nephrology Unit in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Nephrology2018.https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5678781

Ibrahim, N., Teo, S. S., Din, N. C., Gafor, A. H. A., & Ismail, R. (2015). The role of personality and social support in health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients. PloS One10(7),e0129015. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488553/

Lai, S., Mecarelli, O., Pulitano, P., Romanello, R., Davi, L., Zarabla, A.,… & Mitterhofer, A. P. (2016). Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative and replacement therapy. Medicine95(48). http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005191

Silva Junior, G. B., Daher, E. F., Buosi, A. P. A., Lima, R. S., Lima, M. M.,             Silva, E. C., … & Araujo, S. M. (2014). Depression among patients with end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis. Psychology, Health & Medicine19(5), 547-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2013.845303

Taylor, F., Combes, G., & Hare, J. (2016). Improving clinical skills to support the emotional and psychological well-being of patients with end-stage renal disease: a qualitative evaluation of two interventions. Clinical Kidney Journal, 9(3),             516-524. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4886913/pdf/sfw017.pdf

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