A Literature Review of Problems in the hospital setting

Overall issues

Stress in the working environment is considered as a risk factor to the productivity, health, and safety of employees in healthcare organizations. Burnout in the healthcare sector has constantly changed the working condition and environment of the hospital, making it more stressful and demanding (Zarei et al., 2019). Burnout among the healthcare profession is among the most profound factors that influence the quality of care and healthcare practice (Kim et al., 2019).

On the other hand, over the years, inequalities have taken over the healthcare system. The trends expose individuals to a series of activities that affect their perspectives towards life (Gage-Bouchard, 2017). Cultural perspectives play a significant role in influencing the overall understanding of the different concepts associated with the ability of healthcare practitioners to deliver results in the different health facilities (Gage-Bouchard, 2017). The analysis of key literature indicated that analyzing the approaches adopted by healthcare systems in the U.S. and beyond are critical measures for effective solutions (Yee, Bettiol, Macintyre, Wong, & Nohr, 2018). The approach demonstrates a committed effort among practitioners to resolve issues affecting patients and their immediate family or friends. Also, providing effective services and lowering the patient wait-time have played a significant role in influencing the overall perspectives of individuals towards healthcare (Gage-Bouchard, 2017). Thus, serve as sample approaches outlined in the literature review as solutions to the inequalities in healthcare systems.

The burnout syndrome is a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion that comes from the prolonged exposure to work situations and job stressors that are increasingly demanding (Elbarazi, Loney, Yousef & Elias, 2017).Burnouts have been considered to have various detrimental ramifications on individuals and organizations, such as increased absenteeism, staff turnover, injury, and accidents, as well as the organization and interpersonal conflicts (Dubale et al., 2019). Health care professions such as the nurses and physicians have been at a higher risk of having burnout due to the stresses from various patients, inherent patient demands, unsociable and long shift patterns, and a high-stress environment (Chemali et al., 2019). Burnouts have been among the most challenging since it has affected the health system the health outcomes and the patients. Burnouts have been linked to poor management and work overload (Abbas, Ali, Bahgat & Shouman, 2019).

Problem Statement

  1. Burnout is among the most profound factors that influence and impact the quality of care, turnover rate of employees, and healthcare profession practice in the hospital setting.
  2. The healthcare systems in the U.S. is faced by issues of inequality a factor that influences the quality of care and healthcare practice

Research Questions

  1. What are the factors that lead to burnouts among the nurses in the healthcare setting?
  2. What are the leading causes of inequality the healthcare system in the United States?


Key Insights from the Literature Review on the Prevalence of Burnout

Work Overload

Work overload has been a source of exhaustion due to excessive demands whereby the employees feel they have no capacity to perform their duties. Work overload in the hospital setting has been a major stress component and job strain, which leads to burnout.

Poor management

Poor leadership has been cited as a major factor in leading employee burnout. Poor management in hospital settings has resulted in a lack of job control and a toxic organizational culture. This has led to job dissatisfaction, long working hours, and inadequate training, which results in increased patient stress.

Quality of Care

A consideration of the quality of care in the healthcare organizations presents the optimal aspect of service delivery. The capacity to resolve burnout potential among the nursing professions is critical to impact in the quality of care. Thus, further expansion to the topic is critical to determine how nurses dispense their duties in the healthcare settings without succumbing to burnouts.

Key Insights from the Literature Review on Inequalities in Healthcare

The study shows that clinical interactions and the relationship between a patient and medical practitioner shape the basic understanding of the issues affecting the quality of care delivery in the healthcare facilities (Yee et al., 2018). The capacity to achieving the best quality of healthcare poses a profound problem during confrontations characterized of racial perspectives among healthcare workers.  This impacts in the promotion of the prevalence of bias among healthcare workers. This impacts in the erosion of the relationship and interactions between medical practitioners and patience, thus, advancing inequalities in the healthcare service delivery (Yee et al., 2018). Thus, the existing literature emphasize the significance of embracing innovative solutions such as health information technology to enable health professionals provide equal access to individuals without involving any human influence in the process (Goge-Bouchard, 2017).

Furthermore, providing effective service and lowering the patient wait-time have played a significant role in influencing the overall perspectives of individuals towards healthcare. This promotes the understanding of the causes of differences affecting individuals in their immediate environment. In turn, exposes one to a position where they can deliver equal service delivery to patients without considering their identity (Yee et al., 2018). The context of embracing innovative solutions have a significant impact on the overall outcomes in the healthcare system. This is because of the dedicated approach that eliminates any instances of stereotype between a patient and enhances health professional interaction (Goge-Bouchard, 2017). Therefore, understanding the changing needs of individuals provides an opportunity for practitioners to overcome their stereotypical hindrances that affect perspectives.




Abbas, A., Ali, A., Bahgat, S. M., & Shouman, W. (2019). Prevalence, associated factors, and consequences of burnout among ICU healthcare workers: an Egyptian experience. The Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis68(4), 514.

Chemali, Z., Ezzeddine, F. L., Gelaye, B., Dossett, M. L., Salameh, J., Bizri, M. & Fricchione, G. (2019). Burnout among healthcare providers in the complex environment of the Middle East: a systematic review. BMC public health19(1), 1337.

Dubale, B. W., Friedman, L. E., Chemali, Z., Denninger, J. W., Mehta, D. H., Alem, A., … & Gelaye, B. (2019). Systematic review of burnout among healthcare providers in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC public health19(1), 1247.

Elbarazi, I., Loney, T., Yousef, S., & Elias, A. (2017). Prevalence of and factors associated with burnout among health care professionals in Arab countries: a systematic review. BMC health services research17(1), 491.

Gage-Bouchard, E. A. (2017). Culture, styles of institutional interactions, and inequalities in healthcare experiences. Journal of health and social behavior, 58(2), 147-165.

Kim, M. H., Mazenga, A. C., Yu, X., Simon, K., Nyasulu, P., Kazembe, P. N., … & Ahmed, S. (2019). Factors associated with burnout amongst healthcare workers providing HIV care in Malawi. PloS one14(9).

Yee, K. C., Bettiol, S., Macintyre, K., Wong, M. C., & Nohr, C. (2018). How can information and communication technology improve healthcare inequalities and healthcare inequity? The concept of context driven care. Studies in health technology and informatics, 247, 591-595.

Zarei, E., Ahmadi, F., Sial, M. S., Hwang, J., Thu, P. A., & Usman, S. M. (2019). Prevalence of burnout among primary health care staff and its predictors: a study in Iran. International journal of environmental research and public health16(12), 2249.

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