I will be uploading two more articles later today or tomorrow. One question per article please

Discipline: Sociology

Type of Paper: Coursework

Academic Level: High school

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 2 Words: 550


The Problem of Acid violence in Bangladesh

A.Mannan, S. Ghani, SL Sen, A Clarke and PEM Butler.

Crime is an issue seen in countries, globally and it varies in severity. Unlike other countries, Bangladesh has the highest rate of acid burning violence world-wide. Due to this issue, Bangladesh has invested into burn treatment facilities and help from external surgical experts. The number of acid attacks have shown to have increased by 201%, from 1999 to 2003. The most common agents that are used in these attacks are Sulphuric and nitric Acid. These chemicals are easily accessible to perpetrator due to its availability in dying and tanning industries and can be found in car batteries. Unfortunately, the cause of this violence has left victims with permanent life altering damages.

The effect of Acid burns has shown to cause severe infections, require extensive surgical care and cause permanent disfigurement and or visual impairments. Some victims have delayed signs of infection, ranging from7.5 to 9 days which would require skin grafting surgeries once the infected areas are treated. For other patients that do not show signs of infection between 3 to 5 days, the wounds could be covered by a skin graft right after. Skin grafts would very on the area of the injury. For Ex. Thicker skin grafts are used to reconstruct lips and eye lids and Mesh skin grafts would be used on smaller burns. The timing and care of these wounds are crucial. Many times, the damages of these acid burns cause long term and critical loss of facial functioning.

Due to the growing number of Acid violence in Bangladesh, a few organizations were established. In 1999, The AFC (Acid Survivors Foundation) was created to attempt to help stop the rise of acid assaults. They collaborated with organizations like the Bangladesh National Woman’s Lawyer Association, to help with future attacks and to make sure survivors had access to medical care. Two years after, the AFC provided funding for a group of plastic surgeons from the UK and The U.S. to provide free treatment to survivors. They also opened a rehabilitation center called the “Thikhana House”, which had 35 rehabilitation beds. Along with an Operating area fully equipped with 15 beds, in the National Hospital for Paralysis. Survivors would have access to therapy, counsellors, psychologist and legal representation. Lastly, the AFC created a Nation-wide reporting system, that would allow many victims to get help and receive services needed.

These services are essential to many Survivor. “Victims of acid violence are usually young females who have refused the sexual advances or proposal for marriage of a male perpetrator”. They face psychological trauma due to their traumatic experiences and social economic hardships after their recovery. Economic necessities like jobs, are difficult to obtain and or finding a spouse, would be almost impossible.

In recent years Bangladesh had seen an increase of Acid Violence on males, due to business disputes. The article goes over two case studies, “Miss A” a 24 year old victim and “Miss B’ a 17 year old victim. Miss A, was attacked simply for walking home from work with a coworker, the attack was intended for her coworker due to her denying her perpetrators proposal. She sustained burns to her face, neck, shoulders and right arm. She was flown to Italy to have over 10 surgical procedures done for reconstruction to her eyes, nose and lips. The ASF employed Miss A as a nurse and she remained unmarried. The second case study: Miss B, was attacked at the age of 15 also due to denying her attackers proposal. “Her attacker insisted on full revenge and inflicted full thickness burns to the entire right side of her face, neck, shoulder and upper arm while she was sitting by and open window studying at her desk.” (Attacks like this typically occur in the night and usually through a window). She underwent 4 facial reconstruction surgeries; her last surgery was done by a British surgeon.

Although, Acid violence has decreased 14.5% since 2003 and The NCO has built new wards, facilities with foreign surgical experts and training, to alleviate the demand of treatment. It continues to be an ongoing issue in Bangladesh and the judicial system hasn’t created long term policies to deter acid violence.

Mannan, A., Ghani, S., Sen, S. L., Clarke, A., & Butler, P. E. M. (2004). The problem of acid violence in Bangladesh. The Journal of Surgery, 2(1), 39-43.


Where would Acid victims go for medical care in Bangladesh and what typically occurs with a victim due to a delay?
What are some reasons for the spike in Acid assault cases from 1999 to 2002?
What further measures could be taken to prevent or manage the acid burning violence in Bangladesh.?
Article: Hamid, S. N., Ahmad, Y., & Tahir, N. S. (2017). Can Street Children Rely on “Friendship” to Survive on the Streets? A Comparative Study between Street Children in Kuala Lumpur City and Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Journal of Administrative Science Special Edition: Socio-Economic Issue, 14(3)
The article “Can Street Children Rely on “Friendship” to Survive on the Streets? A Comparative Study between Street Children in Kuala Lumpur City and Kota Kinabalu, Sabah” discusses the relationship between street survival and “Friendship”. Street children are children that are classified as unprotected and are often treated as insignificant. Street children do not receive the proper supervision, guidance and or protection from their parents. Circumstances such as poverty, family breakdown, victims of warfare, documentation issues, violence and abuse and many more. The circumstances that attribute to street children are relative, it can depend on situations, contexts, nature, environment and cultural practices.

Street children have been a known issue for decades but still street children remain invisible and continue to suffer from hunger and pain. The Street children issue is known to be one of the global issues of the world. They are closely associated with being vulnerable, treated as insignificant and forgotten in many countries around the world, especially in poor and developing countries such as Africa, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and many others. The estimated number of street children are as follows: 11 million in India, 450,000 in Bangladesh, 300,000 in China, 50,000 in Vietnam and 10,000 in Burma.

When a child has no other option but to turn their lives to the streets, the streets become their livelihood where they can work, earn some money and share their lives with other children. Due to these children becoming street children they are forced to develop specific survival skills that include family networking, friendship, working to obtain money, seeking community resources, belief in God and their focus on the future. Although there are many survival skills street children can use “friendship” appears to be the most popular skill. Once a child decides to turn their lives to the streets they are placed in dangerous situations that include gangsterism, violence, abuse, child labour, prostitution and other situations. To lessen the chances of these dangerous situations from taking place street children tend to stay with a group of friends. Although all street children are in imminent danger females are more susceptible to being sexually assaulted, raped, and sodomized while sleeping.

Although protection is the most positive common reason street children use friendships to survive, friendship has a lot of negative consequences. The negative consequences friendship has is succumbing to theft to assist friends, getting involved in drugs, becoming ignorant to their parents, and getting involved in the wrong group of friends.

This study takes place in two different areas, Kuala Lumpur city and Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and although friendship is an important survival skill in both areas Kuala Lumpur has a low dependency among street children. Kuala Lumpur city receives attention that includes food, clothes and other basic needs from non-governmental organizations. The help Street children receive from NGOs is not nearly enough for a child's development; it is better than Kota Kinabalu.

There are three levels of friendships street children can be divided into, too close to friends, close to friends, and distance from friends. Most street children engage too close to friends for enhanced protection from being bullied or kidnapped by strangers. The discussion on friendship among street children proves that in some situations, street children rely on friendship to survive on the street. Friendship among street children has different levels which may lead to consequences. Even Though friendship has proved to be a great asset for protection it can not guarantee their survival.


Other than females what other group benefits from experienced street children? Why? Do you agree?

What are the three levels of friendship street children can be divided into?

What are the two ways of living that become critical elements in friendship among street children?